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  Historical Background District Mansa
Mansa district was formed on 13th April 1992 from the erstwhile district of Bathinda. Mansa is a small district both in terms of population (6, 88,630) and area (2,174 sq.kms) as per census report of 2001. It is situated on the rail line between Bathinda-Jind-Delhi section and also situated on Barnala-Sardulgarh-Sirsa Road. In the South, this district shares its border with district Sirsa and Fatehabad of the Haryana state and it is flanked by district Bathinda in the West and district Sangrur in the East and North. Two state highways namely Bathinda-Patiala and Barnala-Sirsa run through this district.
1.1 Geography:

The Mansa District forms part of Satluj-Ganga plain and is characterized by low lying flat area. The elevation of the land surface ranges from 208 meters in the southwest to 233 meters in the northeast. Thus the slope of the ground is from northeast to southwest. The range of elevation in the district is about 15 meters. Hence gentle slope is characteristic feature of the area. The Ghaggar River crosses the district through its southern part running in the northeast to southwest direction and doing some geomorphic work in the southern part of the district. The monotony of the plain surface is broken by presence of sand ridges which are residuals of sand dunes in different parts of the district. These sand dune features were quite apparent few decades ago but due to development of agriculture and irrigation facilities, many of these were leveled down but the residuals of these dunes break the monotony of the landscape. They are more conspicuous in three parts of the district. The first concentration of these sand dunes is quite apparent in northwestern part of the district. Many of these sand dunes form linear chains, some of the ridges have a length of about 1km, and most of these ridges are about few hundred meters long. The second concentration is between Uddat branch and Boha distributory of Sirhind canal. Unlike the sand dunes of above mentioned concentration, these run in different directions, indicating shifting wind direction. Most of these sand ridges are small in size. The third cluster of sand dunes is discernible in villages north of Ghaggar River passing through southern part of the district.

The district lacks any perennial river system but only one seasonal stream Ghaggar flows through the Sardulgarh block of the district. This river crosses through the southern part of the district. The river enters the district near Hirke village in the east and leaves the district near Rurki village in the south. River rises in Shivalik Hills and after flowing through the part of Haryana and then Patiala and Sangrur districts of Punjab, enters the district near Hirke village.

Climate Weather

The climate of the Mansa District is, on the whole dry and is characterized by a very hot summer, a short rainy season and a bracing cold season. The year may be divided into four seasons. The cold season from November to March is followed by the summer season, which lasts up to the end of June. The period from July to the middle of September constitutes the southwest monsoon season. The latter half of September and October may be termed as the post-monsoon season.

There is a meteorological observatory at Mansa. The data of this observatory may be taken as representative of the climate of the district as a whole. From about the end of March, the temperature increases rapidly till beginning of July. June is the hottest month having an average daily maximum temperature of about 42ºC and the mean daily minimum about 28ºC. It is intensely hot during the summer. Scorching dust-laden winds which blow on many days make the weather very trying. On individual days, the maximum temperature rises up to about 48ºC.

With the onset of the southwest monsoon by about the end of June or beginning of July, there is an appreciable drop in day temperature. However, the weather is oppressive due to increased moisture in the air on account of frequent breaks in the monsoon rains. By about the middle of September, when the monsoon withdraws, both the day and night temperatures begin to decrease. The drop in the night temperatures even in October is much more than the drop in the day temperature. It is only after October that both the day and night temperatures begin to decrease rapidly. January is generally the coldest month with the mean daily maximum temperature of about 21ºC and the mean daily minimum of about 4ºC. In the cold season, the district is affected by cold waves in the rear of passing western disturbances and the minimum temperature on such occasions may go down to the freezing point of water or even a degree or two below.

Soil & Rainfall
The soil characteristics of Mansa district is alluvial predominantly sandy. The land is predominately plain except few sand dunes/ridges. The average annual rainfall of the district is 378.2 mm. About 74% of the annual rainfall is received during the rainy season, July being the rainiest month. Significant amount of rainfall also occurs in the month of June, mostly in the form of thundershowers. During the rest of the year, very little rainfall occurs. The variation in the annual rainfall from the year to year is very large. From the available rainfall records of the ninety years period from 1901-1990, it was noticed that the highest annual rainfall (29.7% of the normal) was recorded in the year 1917. The lowest annual rainfall (15% of the normal) was recorded in 1989.During the same period, the annual rainfall in the district was less than 80% of the normal in 24 years and two consecutive years of such low rainfall occurred 9 times. On an average there are 20 rainy days (i.e. days with rainfall of 2.5 mm or more) in a year in the district. The heaviest rainfall in 24 hours recorded in the district, was 232.7 mm at Mansa on 4 October 1955.
How To Reach Mansa

Mansa is well linked to other cities and New Delhi by an efficient rail and transport system. The nearest Airports are located at Chandigarh, Amritsar and New Delhi, which are 180 K.M., 250 K.M. and 350 K.M. away by Road respectively. It is also linked by road with Ludhiana (125 km), Ferozepur (160 km via Kot Kapura), Faridkot (115 km).

Mansa is a Connected by Rail and situated on the Delhi-Bathinda of Northern Railway and few trains like New Delhi-Mansa-Bhathinda-Sri Ganganagar Intercity Express and Mumbai-Mansa-Bathinda-Ferozpur Punjab Mail. Besides, there are several Passenger trains running between Delhi and Bhathinda (which stop at Mansa) at regular intervals daily.

Important places in Mansa District
Bareta Mandi

Situated at a distance of 51 Km from Mansa. Bareta Mandi is a railway station on the new Delhi-Bathinda-Ferozpur railway line. It is well connected by road with Bathinda (106 Km), Chandigarh (169 Km) and Patiala (104 Km).

On the outskirts of the town, there is a small place on the bank of a pond where a fair is held every year on the first Sunday of bright half of Bhadhon (August -September) in the memory of two Muslim sisters who are said to have died in the prime of their youth. It is believed that their prophecies proved true. Women who scoop earth out of the pond with the hope that their wishes will be fulfilled mostly attend the fair, known as Mela Bebrian.

There is a splendid temple, named as Krishna mandir, which was built around 1936. Bareta Mandi is known for its desi juties, made by the artisans. The town is predominantly inhabited by Chauhans who trace their origin from Gugga, lord of snakes. It is said that no body has ever died here on account of snakebite because of the blessings of Gugga, the God of Snakes.

Bhopal

Bhopal falls in the Mansa District and lies at a distance of 11 Km from Mansa on an approach road. This village is known for fair of Jogi Pir who is said to be the guru (preceptor) of Chahal Jats. It is said that during the times of Muslim rule, Jogi Pir fought with the forces of Muslim rulers. During the battle, his head was chopped off, but his headless body kept on fighting until it fell down dead in this village. The people were deeply touched by the sacrifice of Jogi Pir and got a smadh constructed here and a fair began to be held. Another story also says that once a few persons were going to some place for business purpose, and night befell them. They stayed under a grove of trees in the premises of the smadh. They felt pangs of thirst at night, but there was no source of water where from they could quench their thirst. A heavenly voice, which was believed to be that of Jogi Pir, was heard: " why do you die of thirst? Pick out a brick from the pond and take water". They did likewise, found water from underneath the brick they picked up and thus they quenched their thirst.

A fair is held here twice annually for three days on Bhadon 28 (August-September) and Chet 16 (March- April) at the smadh of Jogi Pir. Both Hindus and Sikhs, Chahal Jats, attend it in particular in large number. The people pay their obeisance at the smadh, especially after the birth of a son or the solemnization of marriage. Earth is also scooped one of the tank by the people for invoking the blessings of Jogi Pir.

Budhlada

Situated as a distance of 16 Km by rail from Mansa, Budhlada lies on the New Delhi- Bathinda-Ferozepur railway line. It is 69 Km by rail from Bathinda, the district headquarters. It is also connected by road with Bathinda (88 Km), Mansa (33 Km), Chandigarh (174 Km) and Patiala (109 Km).

Budhlada was earlier a British territory and formed part of the Hisar District now in Haryana. The town is known for the manufacture of agricultural implements, shoes and washing soap.

Daliawali

Situated at a distance of about 16 Km from Mansa, Daliawali is connected by an approach road. The nearest town is Maur which is 11 Km from here.

There is a Gurudwara build in the memory of Guru Gobind Singh, who is said to have visited this place. A fair, known as Mela Mithan Sar, is being held here on the Amawas day every month.

The story goes that Guru Gobind Singh, while going from Talwandi Sabo to Kot Dharmu, stayed in Daliawali village at the place where now the gurudwara stands. The devotees who accompanied the Guru told him that they were very hungry. Nothing was available near about except two trees- one of beri and the other of Kikkar. The Guru replied that they should shake the trees. The devotees did like wise and were surprised to find sweet meats falling from the trees. The devotees relished the sweetmeats with added devotion to their Guru. Hence the name Mithan Sar (tank of sweetmeats) has been given to the fair.

Joga
Situated at a distance of about 19 km from Mansa, lies on Mansa-Barnala road. A fair, known as Palara Fair, is held here on Chet Sudi 14 (March-April), which lasts for three days. It is associated with the Pandavas, who are said to have stayed here. According to another legend, Lord Rama played in a swing here in whose memory a temple had been constructed. A large number of persons, both Hindus and Sikhs, attend the fair and take bath in the holy tank.
Khiala Kalan
Situated at a distance of about 5 km from Mansa, Khiala Kalan falls on Mansa-Bhikhi-Sunam road. There is an old Gurudwara build in the memory of GuruTeg Bahadur who is said to have visited this place. Nearby, there is an old beri tree with which Guru Teg Bahadur is said to have tied this horse. A gurudwara has also been raised on this spot. Besides, there is a temple of goddess (devi) built by Brahmins of the village. Guru Teg Bahadur is said to have offered milk in a chhanna (a big pot made of bronze) by a Brahmin family. This chhanna is still kept by Pandit hari Ram Rikhi, descendant of the family.
Phaphare Bhaike
Situated at a distance of 10 km from Mansa, Phaphare Bhaike falls in Mansa District. Phaphare Bhaike is known for Bhai Behlo, who hailed from this village. Bhai Behlo spent his life in the services of Guru Arjan Dev, the 5th Guru, at Amritsar. The Guru was so much pleased with his devotion and service that he blessed him by saying Bhai Behlo Sab Ton Pehlon (Bhai Behlo, you are the first of all). Bhai Behlo also accompanied the marriage party of the Guru. There is a smadh of Bhai Behlo in the village. Nearby, there is also a big sarover (tank). A splendid gurdwara has been constructed in the memory of Bhai Behlo. A big fair is held on Asu 10 (September-October), every year, which lasts far and near attend the fair and pay their obeisance Religious diwans (congregations) are also held on the occasion.
1.4 Administrative Units (including constituencies)
Sr. No.
Division
Mansa
1
Sub-Divisions 1. Mansa
2. Sardulgarh
3. Budhlada
2
Blocks 1. Mansa
2. Jhunir
3. Sardulgarh
4. Budhlada
5. Bhikhi
3
Municipal Committees/Council 1. Mansa
2. Budhlada
3. Bareta
4. Sardulgarh
5. Bhikhi
4
Police Stations 1. PS City-1 Mansa
2. PS City-2 Mans
3. PS Sadar Mansa
4. PS Bhikhi
5. PS Joga
6. PS Kot Dharmu
7. PS Sardulgarh
8. PS Jhunir
9. PS Jaurkian
10. PS City Budhlada
11. PS Sadar 12. Budhlada
12. PS Bareta
13. PS Boha
5
Parliament Constituency Bathinda (General)
6.
Assembly Segment 1. 96-Mansa
2. 97-Sardulgarh
3. 98-Budhlada
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